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PostPosted: Sat May 09, 2015 2:46 am 
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Shalaamu,
The following thread consists of a list of high priests from Aaron to the destruction of the Second Temple by the Romans in 70 AD. Each portion of the thread will contain 10 generations of high priests. Enjoy!

1. Aaron (אהרון ʔAhărōn "mountaineer?"), brother of Moses, son of Amram (and his wife Jochebed), son of Kehath, son of Levi, son of Jacob--Years of Office: 40 (from Mount Sinai to Mount Hor in Moserah); Biography: 1. first-born of Amram (Exodus 6:20); 2. speaker for Moses in Egypt (Exodus 4:14, etc); 3. his wife's name was Elisheba sister of Nahshon son of Amminadab, prince of Judah (Exodus 6:23; Nahshon as prince/captain = Numbers 1:7, 2:3, etc); 4. his sons' names were (1) Nadab, (2) Abihu, (3) Eleazar and (4) Ithamar (Exodus 6:23); 5. becomes first high priest (Exodus 28:3, although only called a "priest"); 6. dies at the age of 123 (when calculated, Aaron 3 years older then Moses: Exodus 7:7; dies on the 1st day of the 5th month in the 40th year: Numbers 33:38--Moses dies in the same year at the age of 120: Deuteronomy 34:7); he was buried in Moserah near Mount Hor (Numbers 20:22, Deuteronomy 10:6).

2. Eleazar I (אלעזר ʔElʕāzār "El helped") son of Aaron (and his wife Elisheba)--Years of Office: ??? (at least over 25 years; from the land of Moserah to Mount Ephraim in Canaan); [/b] Biography: 1. third-born son of Aaron (Exodus 6:23); 2. his older brothers Nadab and Abihu died in the presence of Yahweh, thereby leaving only him as the only surviving eldest son for the high priesthood (Leviticus 10:1-2, Numbers 20:26); 3. he dies later in the land of Canaan (Joshua 24:33), however exact dating unknown (it is very probable that he was considered one of the elders who outlived Joshua [see Joshua 24:31], which period many say only lasted for 17/18 years); his burial site is in "Mount Ephraim" (Joshua 24:33).

3. P(h)inehas (פינחס Pīynəḥās; of Egyptian origin, i.e. Pe-nehasi "the black") son of Eleazar (and his wife "one of the daughters" of a certain Putiel; see the following)--Years of Office: ??? (most likely served for his whole life in Mount Ephraim, if words of LXX in Joshua 24:33 be correct); Biography: 1. a son of Eleazar, son of Aaron (Exodus 6:25); 2. his mother's name is not known, but her father's name is "Putiel" (id.); whether he is Israelite or Egyptian cannot be obtained; 3. kills Zimri son of Sallu, a leader of the tribe of Simeon, and Cozbi, the daughter of a Midianite sheikh named Zur, for their whoredom, which resulted in a plague (Numbers chapter 25); as a blessing for his zealousness, Yahweh covenants P(h)inehas with an "everlasting" priesthood (Numbers 25:12-13); 4. P(h)inehas appears in the land of Canaan later, during the last days of Joshua's life, and criticizes the tribes of Manasseh, Reuben and Gad for building an altar "besides the altar of Yahweh our Elohim" (Joshua 22:13-20); 5. he also appears in the time of the Judges, indeed at least over 100 years-old now, and prays whether they should go up against "my brother Benjamin" (Judges 20:28); 6. according to a tradition preserved in the LXX (Greek Septuagint) in Joshua 24:33, P(h)inehas dies in Mount Ephraim like his father Eleazar, and was buried there "in his own place."

4. Abishua (אבישוע ʔĂḇīyšūwaʕ "father of salvation") son of Pinehas--Years of Office: ???; Biography: he, and the following 6 high priests, have nothing recorded on their acts; all we know is that Abishua was the son of P(h)inehas, and is thus recorded in 1 Chronicles 6:4, v. 5, v. 50 and Ezra 7:5 in records on genealogy.

5. Bukki (בקי Buqqīy "emptiness") son of Abishua--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown (as son of Abishua: 1 Chronicles 6:5, v. 51 and Ezra 7:4).

6. Uzzi (עזי ʕUzzīy "strength") son of Bukki--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown (as son of Bukki: 1 Chronicles 6:5, v. 6, v. 51 and Ezra 7:4).

7. Zerahiah (זרחיה Zəraḥyāh "Yah has risen") son of Uzzi--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown (as son of Uzzi: 1 Chronicles 6:6, v. 51 and Ezra 7:4).

8. Meraioth I (מריות Mərāyōwṯ "rebellions") son of Zerahiah--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown (as son of Zerahiah: 1 Chronicles 6:6, v. 7, v. 52 and Ezra 7:3).

9. Azariah I (עזריה ʕĂzaryāh "Yah helped") son of Meraioth I--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown (as son of Meraioth I: Ezra 7:3); he is lacking in the great lists of 1 Chronicles 6:7 + v. 52, which is common among genealogies (not an inaccuracy; cf. genealogy of the Messiah in Matthew 1, where it lacks a few kings of Judah).

10. Amariah I (אמריה ʔĂmaryāh "Yah has spoken") son of Azariah I--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown (as son of [Azariah I, son of] Meraioth I: 1 Chronicles 6:7, v. 52 and Ezra 7:3, the latter containing the full genealogy--"Amariah, son of Azariah, son of Meraioth").

TO BE CONTINUED...on Monday :)

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PostPosted: Sat May 09, 2015 4:30 am 
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So we have 10 high priests roughly corresponding with the periods of the Wandering, Conquest and Judges (i.e. the complete pre-Dynastic period of Israel). They are:

1. Aaron
2. Eleazar (I) his son
3. P(h)inehas his son
4. Abishua his son
5. Bukki his son
6. Uzzi his son
7. Zerahiah his son
8. Meraioth (I) his son
9. Azariah (I) his son
10. Amariah (I) his son

In all, this was a total of at least 375 years (if the chronology of 1 Kings 6:1 be correct). But apparently, after the death of Uzzi, the 6th high priest of this line, as is confirmed in Josephus' Antiquities 5.11.5, there was a secondary priesthood of the line of Ithamar, the younger brother of Eleazar son of Aaron, set up at Shiloh, and then at Nob. Therefore Zerahiah, Meraioth I, Azariah I and Amariah I would not have received the office of high priesthood. This line of high priests included:

1. Eli (עלי ʕĒlīy "lofty")--Years of Office: 1. As High Priest: ???; 2. As Judge: 20 years (LXX; not 40, as Masoretic tradition and Josephus state, otherwise the chronology of 1 Kings 6:1 would be off); Biography: 1. he was of the lineage of Ithamar, son of Aaron (Antiquities 5:11:5); 2. his two sons were named (1) Hophni and (2) P(h)inehas (1 Samuel 1:3); 3. the youth soon-to-be prophet Samuel was put into his care (1 Samuel 1:24-28); 4. he becomes blind (1 Samuel 3:2), probably punishment for his sons' evil in 1 Samuel 2:12-36; 5. he dies at the age of 98, having ruled Israel for 20 (not 40) years when he heard of his sons' death in battle, and the Ark taken by the Philistines (he fell off of a roof; 1 Samuel 4:11-18); since his sons died, none became high priest after him; however, Eli has two grandsons from P(h)inehas (the first-born obviously being Ahitub; the youngest being Ichabod), and the first-born becomes high priest.

2. Ahitub (אחיטוב ʔĂḥīyṭūwḇ "brother of goodness") son of P(h)inehas, son of Eli--Years of Office: ???; Biography: evidently the first-born of two sons from P(h)inehas, the other, the youngest, being named Ichabod (Ahitub = 1 Samuel 14:3, Ichabod's birth = 1 Samuel 4:19-22), and he definitely becomes high priest. Nothing else is known about Ahitub other than this mention of him.

3. Ahi(j)ah (אחיה ʔĂḥiyyāh "brother of Yah") son of Ahitub--Years of Office: ??? (definitely in the beginning of the reign of King Saul though); Biography: 1. he was priest at Shiloh (1 Samuel 14:3) wearing a "shoulder garment" (ephod) at the time of the battle of Gibeah with King Saul and the Philistines; 2. he was told by Saul to bring the Ark into battle (1 Samuel 14:18); Saul changes his mind, and they successfully defeated the Philistines without the Ark (vs. 19-23).

4. Ahimelech (אחימלך ʔĂḥīymeleḵ "brother of the king") son of Ahitub--Years of Office: ???; Biography: 1. he is either the same as the Ahi(j)ah above, or it may be his brother. I personally suggest he is his brother. 2. Nob apparently becomes the place of this priesthood, and David comes to him from Gibeah fleeing King Saul (1 Samuel 21:1-9); 3. he is murdered at the hand of King Saul, who charges him with treason of supporting his enemy, David, and evidently kills all of these Ithamarite priests at Nob (1 Samuel 22:11-19), except for Abiathar.

5. Abiathar (אביתר ʔEḇyāṯār "the father is excellent") son of Ahimelech--Years of Office: ??? (???-1019 BC; apparently from King David down to the beginning of the reign of King Solomon); Biography: 1. the remaining son of Ahimelech and the lone survivor of the Ithamarite priests of Nob (1 Samuel 22:20-22); 2. Zadok (I) of the line of Eleazar and him ruled contemporaneous as high priests, apparently, in the kingdom of David (2 Samuel 8:17; all texts transpose the text by reading inaccurately "Ahimelech son of Abiathar" = original "Abiathar son of Ahimelech"); 3. Abiathar has a son: Jonathan, who becomes ears for David when Ab(i)s(h)alom rebels (latter = 2 Samuel 15:36); 4. but he jumped from the frying pan into the fire, and joins Adonijah's revolt (1 Kings 1:7), and consequently lost favor and was eventually banished from being priest (1 Kings 2:27).

The banishment of Abiathar from the post of high priesthood marked the end of the Ithamarite group of high priests. Indeed, the mention of Jonathan son of Abiathar and his conversation with Adonijah in 1 Kings 1:42-53 suggests he was also a part of the revolt, therefore he was probably also prohibited from practicing as priest before Yahweh. So Josephus was right when he said Eli received the (high) priesthood after Uzzi (of the Eleazarite group), and his descendants until the time of Solomon's reign. So then the "posterity of Eleazar resumed it."

So the successive high priests were really:

Eleazarite Period
1. Aaron
2. Eleazar I his son
3. P(h)inehas his son
4. Abishua his son
5. Bukki his son
6. Uzzi his son

Ithamarite Period
7. Eli of Ithamar son of Aaron
8. Ahitub son of P(h)inehas, son of Eli
9. Ahi(j)ah son of Ahitub
10. Ahimelech his brother
11. Abiathar his son & Zadok I son of Ahitub the Eleazarite (dual high priesthood)

The Eleazarites Zerahiah, Meraioth I, Azariah I, Amariah I and Ahitub (who will be mentioned in the next comment on this thread) did not receive the high priesthood, as is evident from Josephus. Zadok I, son of Ahitub, became high priest in the days of King Solomon, as is evident from 1 Kings 4:4 (the possible insertion of Abiathar is probably as a note that he was priest for a little at the beginning of Solomon's reign, and this list of officials are of those officials who belonged to the old reign of David which were transferred to Solomon.

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PostPosted: Tue May 12, 2015 7:00 pm 
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Shalaamu again,
Sorry for being late. this is the continuation of the previous lists:

12. Zadok I (צדוק Ṣāḏōwq "righteous") son of Ahitub I, son of Amariah I the Eleazarite--Years of Office: ??? (ca. 1018 BCE-???, assumed complete office after the deposed priest Abiathar son of Ahimelech the Ithamarite); Biography: 1. assumes complete office of high priest after Abiathar is deposed by King Solomon (1 Kings 2:35); 2. he was also the chief of the Aaronites (priests) already in the time of King David (1 Chronicles 27:17); 3. he anoints Solomon as king after his father David (1 Kings 1:39); 4. his descendants are called "the seed/sons of Zadok" in Ezekiel (Ezekiel 43:19, 44:15 and 48:11).

13. Ahimaaz (אחימעץ ʔĂḥīymaʕaṣ "brother of anger") son of Zadok I--Years of Office: ??? (certainly born before King Solomon ascended the throne, because he appears in 2 Samuel 15:27 in the rebellion of Absalom; became high priest during the reign of Solomon around 1000 BCE); 1. served King David loyally while Absalom rebelled (2 Samuel 15:36); 2. he was also the first messenger to deliver to David the battle between Joab and Absalom (2 Samuel 18:28-29).

14. Azariah II (for name see Azariah I) son of Ahimaaz--Years of Office: ??? (chief official in the days of King Solomon, so served as a regular priest in the Temple while his father, Zadok I, was high priest); Biography: 1. prince/chief official of the reign of King Solomon (1 Kings 4:2); 2. it should be this Azariah, not his descendant Azariah III, that the phrase "it was he who served as priest in the House (Temple) that Solomon built in Jerusalem" rightfully belongs (1 Chronicles 6:9, not presently in 1 Chronicles 6:10 as Azariah III).

15. Johanan I (יוחנן Yōwḥānān "Yahweh is grace") son of Azariah II--Years of Office: ???; Biography: (note: he is called Joran in Josephus and Joash in Seder Olam Zuta) unknown; as son of Azariah II (1 Chronicles 6:9-10).

16. J(eh)oiarib I (י[ה]ויריב Y[əh]ōwyārīyḇ "Yahweh is strife") son of Johanan I (omitted from the Scriptures)--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown; as son of Johanan I/Joran/Joash (Sedar Olam Zuta; Josephus calls him Jesus = Joshua יהושע Yəhōwšuaʕ "Yahweh is salvation")

17. Jehoshaphat (יהושפט Yəhōwšāfāṭ "Yahweh judged") son of J(eh)oiarib I (omitted from the Scriptures)--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown; as son of J(eh)oiarib I/Jesus (Seder Olam Zuta; Josephus calls him Achiomar).

18. J(eh)oiada I (י[ה]וידע Y[əh]ōwyāḏāʕ "Yahweh has known") son of Jehoshaphat--Years of Office: ??? (probably born in the reign of Solomon, and became high priest at an unknown time, until the middle of the reign of Jehoash), if 2 Chronicles 24:15 is correct if he died at 130 years of age); Biography: 1. as son of Jehoshaphat/Achiomar (Seder Olam Zuta; father not mentioned in Scriptures); 2. raises the young prince Jehoash secretly while Athaliah usurps the throne of Judah (2 Chronicles 22:11); 3. gathers a revolt against Athaliah 7 years later, and has Athaliah killed (2 Chronicles 23:1-15); 4. makes a covenant, and has the house of Baal built by Athaliah destroyed (2 Chronicles 23:16-17); 5. reorganizes the Temple (2 Chronicles 23:18-20); 6. takes two wives for King Jehoash (2 Chronicles 24:3); 7. obeys a command of Jehoash to repair the Temple of Yahweh, which was damaged by Athaliah for the house of Baal (2 Chronicles 24:6-14); 8. dies at the age of 130, and was buried with the previous kings because of his bravery and good which "he had done to Israel" (2 Chronicles 24:15-16).

19. Pedaiah (פדיה Pəḏāyāh "Yah ransomed") son of J(eh)oiada (omitted from the Scriptures)--Years of Office: ??? (obviously after death of J[eh]oiada his father in the reign of Jehoash); Biography: unknown; as a son of J(eh)oiada (Seder Olam Zuta; Josephus calls him Phideas); he is obviously the (older?) brother of Zechariah (2 Chronicles 24:20-22). He probably did not last very long either, because 2 Chronicles 24:25 has "sons" (בני) and not "son" (בן) of Jehoiada.

20. Zedekiah (צדקיה Ṣiḏqīyyāh "righteousness of Yah") son of Pedaiah (omitted from the Scriptures)--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown; as son of Pedaiah (Josephus, who calls him Sudeas; Seder Olam Zuta names him as Zedekiah).

21. Azariah III son of Zedekiah--Years of Office: ??? (1 Chronicles 9:10 is corrupt); Biography: unknown; as son of Zedekiah (Josephus and Seder Olam Zuta, which call him Joel); 1 Chronicles 9:10 makes him the son of Johanan I, but the omission of some generations is not uncommon; however, the note the verse adds to his name should be up in 1 Chronicles 9:9 with Azariah II.

22. Amariah II (see Amariah I for the Hebrew) son of Azariah III--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown; as son of Azariah III (1 Chronicles 6:11).

TO BE CONTINUED...

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PostPosted: Tue May 12, 2015 7:05 pm 
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The Amariah in 2 Chronicles 19:11 is most likely the same as the 17th high-priest Jehoshaphat in the above list. It was probably a secondary name, or a deliberate alteration of the name to avoid confusion between King Jehoshaphat who was ruling at that time, and Jehoshaphat the high priest. This is also probably why Josephus calls him Achiomar (-omar being the same as Amar- in Amariah). Therefore he was put over all of "the things of Yahweh" (2 Chronicles 19:11) by King Jehoshaphat.

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PostPosted: Wed May 13, 2015 1:44 am 
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CONTINUING...

23. Uri(j)ah (אוריה ʔŪwrīyyāh "light of Yah") son of Amariah II (he is also called Ahitub in 1 Chronicles 16:11-12)--Years of Office: ??? (around the reign of King Ahaz); Biography: 1. as a son of Amariah II (Josephus); 2. one of the two faithful witnesses of Isaiah's prophecy about Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz (Isaiah 8:1-2); 3. builder of an altar in the design of the Aramaeans under the command of King Ahaz, and sacrificed upon it (2 Kings 16:10-16).

24. Neriah (נריה Nērīyyāh "light of Yah") son of Uri(j)ah/Ahitub (also called Azariah in 2 Chronicles 31:10)--Years of Office: ???; Biography: 1. as son of Uri(j)ah/Ahitub (Josephus and Seder Olam Zuta, latter = Neriah, former = Nerias); the name Neriah is non-Biblical 2. the only thing on him is that he was the offerings from the harvest (2 Chronicles 31:7-10).

25. Meraioth II (see Meraioth I for the name) son of Neriah/Azariah (?)--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown; as father of Zadok II (Nehemiah 11:11); if he is the son of Neriah/Azariah, it is unattested.

26. Zadok II (see Zadok I on the name) son of Meraioth II--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown; as son of Meraioth II (Nehemiah 11:11); he is called a son of Uri(j)ah/Ahitub in 1 Chronicles 6:12 and Ezra 7:2. Zadok II is called Hoshaiah in Seder Olam Zuta, and Odeas (Hodaiah) in Josephus.

27. Meshullam (משלם Məšullām "peaceful") son of Zadok II (also called Shallum in 1 Chronicles 6:12-13, Ezra 7:12, Jeremiah 32:7 and 35:4)--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown; as son of Zadok II (1 Chronicles 6:12-13, Ezra 7:12; Meshullam as his name in Nehemiah 11:11).

28. Hilkiah ([חלקיה[ו Ḥilqīyyāh[ūw] "portion of Yah[weh]") son of Meshullam/Shallum--Years of Office: ??? (high priest at the time of King Josiah); Biography: 1. as son of Meshullam/Shallum (1 Chronicles 6:13, 9:11, Ezra 7:1-2 1. father of at least 2 sons: (1) Azariah IV (the next high priest; 1 Chronicles 6:13) and (2) Jeremiah the prophet (obviously younger son; Jeremiah 1:1); 2. he lived in Anathoth of Benjamin (Jeremiah 1:1); 3. head of the donations of the Temple (2 Kings 22:4-7); 4. he finds a Torah scroll in the Temple during repairs, which was missing (2 Kings 22:8-13, 23:24). On possibility of Gemariah being another son of Hilkiah, see next second post.

29. Azariah IV (see Azariah I for name) son of Hilkiah--Years of Office: ???; Biography: unknown; as (first-born) son of Hilkiah (1 Chronicles 6:13-14, Ezra 7:1). Nothing else is known about this (eldest) brother of the prophet Jeremiah.

30. Seraiah (שריה Śərāyāh "Yah wrestled") son of Azariah IV--Years of Office: ??? (certainly right before the Exile to Babylon in 589 BCE, for he was deposed by the captain of the guard in Babylon: Jeremiah 52:24); Biography: unknown; as a son of Azariah IV (1 Chronicles 6:14, Ezra 7:1, ); he was deposed by Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard in Babylon (Jeremiah 52:24).

TO BE CONTINUED...

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